Common Symbiosis Genes
We are interested in unraveling the molecular mechanisms involved in the intracellular accommodation of symbiotic microorganisms by plants. Legumes form symbiosis with phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria. Forward genetics has identified a series of plant genes required for early developmental stages of both symbioses. The predicted protein products of these ‘common symbiosis genes’ include a symbiosis receptor kinase (SYMRK; Antolín-Llovera etal., 2014; Ried et al., 2014) that is also required for actinorhiza symbiosis and has been implicated in the evolution of nodulation (Markmann et al., 2009). Together with nuclear envelope localized ion channels (Charpentier et al., 2009) and components of the NUP84 sub-complex of the nuclear pore (Groth et al., 2009; Binder et al., 2013), these components are required for symbiosis-induced calcium spiking, which is likely to be decoded by a complex formed by a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (Singh and Parniske 2012) and CYCLOPS, a nuclear protein with a coiled-coil domain (Yano et al., 2008; Singh et al., 2014).
Antolín-Llovera M, Ried MK, Parniske M. (2014). Cleavage of the SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE Ectodomain Promotes Complex Formation with Nod Factor Receptor 5. Curr Biol. 24:422-427
Binder A, Parniske M. (2013). Analysis of the Lotus japonicus nuclear pore NUP107-160 subcomplex reveals pronounced structural plasticity and functional redundancy. Front. Plant Sci. 4:552
Charpentier, M., Bredemeier, R., Wanner, G., Takeda, N., Schleiff, E., and Parniske, M. (2008). Lotus japonicus CASTOR and POLLUX are ion channels essential for perinuclear calcium spiking in legume root endosymbiosis. Plant Cell 20: 3467-3479.
Groth, M., Takeda, N., Perry, J., Uchida, H., Dräxl, S., Sato, S., Tabata, S., Kawaguchi, M., Wang, T.L., and Parniske, M. (2010). NENA, a Lotus japonicus homolog of Sec13, is required for rhizodermal infection by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and rhizobia but dispensable for cortical endosymbiotic development. The Plant Cell 22:2509–26
Markmann, K., Giczey, G., and Parniske, M. (2008). Functional adaptation of a plant receptor-kinase paved the way for the evolution of intracellular root symbioses with bacteria. PLoS Biol. 6, e68.
Ried MK, Antolín-Llovera M, Parniske M. (2014). Spontaneous symbiotic reprogramming of plant roots triggered by receptor-like kinases. Elife. 3:e03891
Singh S, Katzer K, Lambert J, Cerri M, Parniske M. (2014). CYCLOPS, A DNA-Binding Transcriptional Activator, Orchestrates Symbiotic Root Nodule Development. Cell Host Microbe. 15:139–52
Singh S, Parniske M. (2012). Activation of calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK), the central regulator of plant root endosymbiosis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 15:444–53
Yano, K., Yoshida, S., Müller, J., Singh, S., Banba, M., Vickers, K., Markmann, K., White, C., Schuller, B., Sato, S., Asamizu, E., Tabata, S., Murooka, Y., Perry, J., Wang, T.L., Kawaguchi, M., Imaizumi-Anraku, H., Hayashi, M., and Parniske, M. (2008). CYCLOPS, a mediator of symbiotic intracellular accommodation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 20540–20545.